Nomenclature of organic compounds
Steps by step….
Step 1: Locate the longest carbon chain in our compound
We will use this compound as our example for naming. As you can see, the longest chain is 7 carbon atoms long.
Step 2: Name that longest carbon chain
Those 7 carbon atoms are equal to a root word. We can find the root word by looking at the table that shows what number of carbon atoms corresponds to what root word. The number 7 corresponds to ‘hept-.’ Now you know that the root word is the base that lets you know how many carbon atoms are in your compound.
Step 3: Figure out what the ending (suffix) should be
If there is a functional group in your compound, you will need to find the suffix that goes with it and put it at the end of your name. A functional group is a specific group of molecules you can easily spot in a compound. For this compound the functional group alkane (C-H atom) is present, so take a look at the table of suffix endings.
You can see that the ending for alkane is ‘-ane.’ When we take our base name of hept- and add -ane, we get that the name for the parent chain (longest carbon-carbon chain) is heptane.
Step 4: Number your carbon atoms
First, notice any side groups, or any molecule or atom that hangs from your longest (or parent) chain. Okay, now locate the two ends of your carbon chain. Begin numbering each carbon atom (1,2, and so on) on the parent chain from left to right, then do it again but from right to left. Which way approaches a side group first? Then that end is considered to be the 1 carbon end.
Hmm, you’ll notice that the carbon attached to our side chain would be numbered 4 no matter which side you come from. Well then, 4 it is! Our side chain will be associated with the number 4, so 4 will come at the very start of our compound’s name.
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